Table 18.1. Total above-ground biomass (million tonnes) on forest land by species group, age class and terrestrial ecozone in Canada.
Terrestrial ecozone Species group Age (years) Total
1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 101-120 121-140 141-160 161-180 181-200 201+ Other1
Taiga Plains Spruce 0.75 0.53 14.00 64.95 2 076.97 45.84 48.18 41.22 11.68 4.82 4.46 0.00 2 313.40
Poplar 0.09 1.44 46.99 209.53 61.39 50.85 21.07 6.97 0.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 398.56
Pine 0.01 0.14 4.32 8.10 3.40 6.56 14.19 5.09 0.02 0.00 0.04 0.00 41.87
Birch 0.01 0.49 7.07 7.84 4.31 3.17 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 23.72
Larch 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.24 0.65 0.32 0.52 0.32 0.08 0.18 0.30 0.00 2.77
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.16
Fir 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Subtotal 0.86 2.60 72.54 290.66 2 146.72 106.75 84.79 53.60 12.01 5.00 4.80 0.16 2 780.49
Taiga Shield Spruce 1.33 0.53 2.67 147.40 298.07 876.40 859.59 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 186.32
Poplar 0.23 0.00 0.06 0.00 25.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 25.77
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 14.91 14.91
Fir 0.00 0.00 0.01 2.22 0.19 9.47 1.03 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.21
Pine 1.68 0.02 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.54
Birch 0.04 0.04 0.10 0.17 1.62 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.97
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.06 0.67 1.11 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.89
Larch 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13
Subtotal 3.29 0.63 2.94 149.86 326.07 887.72 860.63 0.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 14.91 2 246.74
Boreal Shield Spruce 33.54 226.23 436.81 991.88 1 753.53 1 317.32 291.97 140.27 19.22 2.58 0.22 0.00 5 213.57
Poplar 18.08 80.08 234.76 561.64 425.88 53.61 10.53 0.83 1.45 0.48 0.00 0.00 1 387.34
Pine 41.50 103.16 167.32 288.96 279.98 62.88 20.39 6.31 0.61 0.01 0.00 0.00 971.12
Birch 7.20 59.98 237.24 271.26 227.00 35.85 15.95 3.07 1.38 0.25 0.31 0.00 859.49
Maple 3.45 10.63 137.66 67.55 233.52 68.11 41.27 22.66 4.20 3.45 0.18 0.00 592.68
Fir 9.34 43.80 95.84 130.56 139.74 45.14 12.93 5.33 2.96 0.97 0.13 0.00 486.74
Unspecified conifers 115.53 55.94 4.77 0.23 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 176.51
Unclassified 26.82 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 63.64 90.46
Larch 25.99 2.87 6.02 6.98 8.14 7.70 5.37 3.07 0.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 66.70
Other hardwoods 0.71 2.17 10.49 24.50 14.06 6.54 1.49 0.17 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 60.19
Cedar & other conifers 0.09 3.04 6.55 11.87 18.55 7.22 5.84 4.90 0.50 0.24 0.00 0.00 58.80
Unspecified hardwoods 47.35 5.42 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 52.95
Hemlock 0.00 0.00 2.57 4.08 6.20 3.96 4.50 1.25 0.24 1.04 0.89 0.00 24.73
Subtotal 329.60 593.32 1 340.21 2 359.51 3 106.64 1 608.33 410.24 187.86 31.18 9.02 1.73 63.64 10 041.28
Atlantic Maritime Fir 9.71 69.50 118.14 97.63 35.11 4.61 0.68 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 335.39
Maple 12.05 22.71 150.51 78.62 44.40 2.31 0.96 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 311.80
Spruce 9.92 29.51 135.71 75.29 47.71 12.33 0.86 0.22 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 311.76
Poplar 5.75 17.72 48.64 26.50 3.33 0.15 0.00 0.12 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 102.27
Birch 5.74 13.15 40.21 20.49 12.81 0.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 93.04
Cedar & other conifers 0.21 1.19 7.76 5.56 10.68 8.43 1.15 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 35.04
Unspecified conifers 23.33 9.22 0.06 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 32.74
Pine 3.54 2.18 8.37 6.74 3.65 0.87 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 25.41
Other hardwoods 13.71 2.40 1.43 2.11 0.05 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 19.79
Unspecified hardwoods 8.85 1.45 0.64 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.05
Unclassified 1.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.30 8.11
Larch 0.59 1.75 3.61 1.28 0.38 0.06 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.69
Hemlock 0.04 0.56 2.60 0.46 1.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.68
Subtotal 95.25 171.34 517.68 314.92 159.12 29.49 3.73 0.63 0.21 0.06 0.04 6.30 1 298.77
Mixedwood Plains Maple 1.11 10.78 57.81 40.34 21.75 3.86 0.78 0.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 136.84
Poplar 1.31 11.98 16.68 3.62 1.60 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 35.33
Other hardwoods 0.43 5.22 11.55 13.21 3.07 0.65 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.28
Cedar & other conifers 0.09 3.49 11.65 5.19 1.86 0.35 0.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 23.29
Pine 1.33 5.27 5.64 2.55 0.49 0.21 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.59
Fir 0.01 8.13 5.24 1.11 0.47 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.17
Birch 0.24 1.97 1.97 0.16 1.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.68
Spruce 0.15 0.82 2.55 0.51 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.12
Hemlock 0.00 0.00 2.36 0.52 1.17 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.11
Unspecified hardwoods 2.16 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.30
Larch 0.01 0.25 0.96 0.51 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.74
Unspecified conifers 0.91 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.21
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.65 0.65
Subtotal 7.75 48.35 116.41 67.72 31.85 5.21 1.86 0.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.65 280.31
Boreal Plains Spruce 2.07 17.62 182.81 357.79 298.10 176.08 111.13 58.11 25.78 7.43 7.63 0.00 1 244.55
Poplar 16.32 73.81 383.54 347.07 203.86 133.48 33.31 3.82 0.74 0.03 0.00 0.00 1 195.98
Pine 5.61 19.71 69.81 77.84 79.65 96.24 25.49 14.06 2.25 0.27 0.00 0.00 390.93
Larch 0.18 1.04 4.00 8.74 10.47 6.65 3.15 1.01 2.54 0.11 0.00 0.00 37.89
Birch 0.19 2.71 15.42 3.57 2.41 0.27 0.06 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 24.71
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 14.80 14.80
Fir 0.00 1.16 1.12 1.77 1.65 1.00 0.24 1.96 0.43 0.16 0.55 0.00 10.04
Maple 0.07 0.17 0.07 0.49 0.00 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.95
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.29 0.29 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.61
Subtotal 24.44 116.51 657.06 797.28 596.15 413.87 173.38 79.05 31.74 8.00 8.18 14.80 2 920.46
Prairies Poplar 0.11 0.11 32.21 48.94 61.60 0.02 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 143.00
Spruce 0.00 0.00 0.13 2.42 0.54 3.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.11
Pine 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.45 0.22 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.83
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.19
Birch 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Fir 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 0.11 0.11 32.34 51.82 62.36 3.20 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.19 150.14
Taiga Cordillera Spruce 0.05 15.89 9.16 2.62 5.41 427.08 5.72 2.93 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 469.14
Fir 0.00 0.01 1.08 1.72 5.42 2.74 3.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 14.25
Birch 0.01 0.02 0.04 8.84 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.93
Pine 0.00 0.38 0.58 0.61 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.75
Poplar 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15
Subtotal 0.06 16.31 10.86 13.79 11.17 429.82 9.00 2.93 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 494.22
Boreal Cordillera Spruce 0.08 9.10 25.86 54.41 192.73 165.76 71.36 51.13 77.66 13.26 132.13 0.00 793.48
Pine 0.06 10.69 17.96 16.57 56.44 41.85 51.91 38.93 25.78 2.56 21.45 0.00 284.20
Fir 0.08 0.84 2.30 7.03 17.38 17.80 16.93 17.34 14.92 8.55 93.70 0.00 196.87
Poplar 0.47 5.94 18.63 12.72 3.16 9.82 10.72 5.36 2.07 0.00 3.35 0.00 72.24
Birch 0.20 1.23 0.75 2.85 1.93 0.12 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.22
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.88 0.88
Subtotal 0.89 27.80 65.50 93.58 271.64 235.35 151.06 112.76 120.43 24.37 250.63 0.88 1 354.89
Pacific Maritime Hemlock 1.06 46.92 58.71 82.78 42.00 43.90 40.41 22.89 14.91 16.15 1 051.28 0.00 1 421.01
Cedar & other conifers 1.22 2.36 7.29 3.67 3.51 3.85 3.89 1.66 5.63 12.21 475.04 0.00 520.33
Douglas-fir 0.28 16.67 55.78 81.18 52.74 39.18 38.11 8.78 21.84 6.56 89.34 0.00 410.46
Fir 0.73 7.92 4.17 2.40 3.38 10.51 3.36 5.15 10.22 3.27 298.73 0.00 349.84
Spruce 0.36 3.00 1.68 0.57 6.50 0.55 0.91 1.19 1.62 9.76 54.59 0.00 80.73
Pine 0.12 0.07 1.29 1.66 3.27 12.42 8.30 1.18 0.15 3.56 7.23 0.00 39.25
Other hardwoods 0.04 2.55 14.34 11.85 6.58 3.28 0.17 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 38.82
Poplar 0.00 0.29 0.61 2.52 5.41 7.12 1.85 2.50 1.02 1.35 0.56 0.00 23.23
Maple 0.00 0.27 1.39 5.30 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.16
Birch 0.09 0.14 0.07 2.23 0.75 1.33 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.93
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.47 4.47
Unspecified hardwoods 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 3.90 80.19 145.33 194.16 124.34 122.14 97.32 43.36 55.39 52.86 1 976.77 4.47 2 900.23
Montane Cordillera Pine 3.58 16.99 35.06 162.36 222.94 249.25 315.41 188.10 105.17 61.91 66.08 0.00 1 426.85
Spruce 1.74 6.36 12.10 32.20 52.57 91.35 149.53 131.19 111.02 124.33 431.86 0.00 1 144.25
Fir 0.18 9.63 15.95 28.42 36.07 37.93 72.15 66.30 74.15 85.90 441.16 0.00 867.84
Douglas-fir 2.06 19.35 26.32 75.11 111.44 151.42 128.32 77.48 42.40 29.23 111.67 0.00 774.80
Hemlock 0.00 3.83 6.91 8.54 16.77 8.25 3.68 12.59 10.81 10.93 182.35 0.00 264.66
Poplar 0.73 2.53 5.29 19.07 48.49 32.72 21.08 4.61 2.98 0.38 1.28 0.00 139.16
Cedar & other conifers 0.01 3.61 0.96 3.33 3.86 3.78 1.67 3.97 4.08 7.56 88.24 0.00 121.07
Larch 0.33 0.62 4.31 17.75 16.84 17.99 9.50 5.34 1.59 1.97 10.04 0.00 86.28
Birch 0.21 0.36 1.49 6.11 10.20 6.71 2.52 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 27.90
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.64 7.64
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.11 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13
Subtotal 8.84 63.28 108.39 352.89 519.18 599.40 703.86 489.99 352.22 322.21 1 332.68 7.64 4 860.58
Hudson Plains Spruce 0.93 0.46 1.01 4.20 66.37 134.58 1.43 2.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 210.99
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.74 3.74
Pine 0.51 1.63 0.25 0.58 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.25
Poplar 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.91 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.99
Larch 0.59 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.11 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.76
Fir 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.09
Cedar & other conifers 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05
Birch 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05
Unspecified conifers 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04
Subtotal 2.03 2.13 1.26 7.84 66.68 134.77 1.48 2.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.74 221.96
Canada Spruce 50.92 310.05 824.49 1 734.24 4 798.59 3 250.31 1 540.68 428.60 247.47 162.18 630.89 0.00 13 978.42
Poplar 43.09 193.91 787.41 1 234.52 840.34 287.99 98.56 24.22 8.49 2.30 5.19 0.00 3 526.02
Pine 57.94 160.24 310.70 566.42 650.50 471.18 435.75 253.77 133.98 68.31 94.80 0.00 3 203.59
Fir 20.05 140.99 243.85 272.92 239.44 129.21 110.81 96.38 102.68 98.85 834.27 0.00 2 289.45
Hemlock 1.10 51.31 73.15 96.38 67.14 56.11 48.67 36.73 25.96 28.12 1 234.52 0.00 1 719.19
Douglas-fir 2.34 36.02 82.10 156.29 164.18 190.60 166.43 86.26 64.24 35.79 201.01 0.00 1 185.26
Birch 13.93 80.09 304.36 323.58 262.39 48.09 19.82 3.45 1.38 0.25 0.31 0.00 1 057.65
Maple 16.68 44.56 347.44 192.30 299.87 74.43 43.01 23.27 4.20 3.45 0.22 0.00 1 049.43
Cedar & other conifers 1.62 13.69 34.21 29.62 38.46 23.63 13.26 10.59 10.21 20.01 563.28 0.00 758.58
Unspecified conifers 139.77 65.50 4.83 0.36 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 210.50
Larch 27.70 6.53 19.06 35.55 36.53 32.83 18.54 9.85 4.77 2.26 10.34 0.00 203.96
Other hardwoods 14.89 12.67 38.10 51.74 24.44 11.67 1.82 0.30 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 155.71
Unclassified 28.63 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 117.38 146.01
Unspecified hardwoods 58.36 7.01 0.82 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 66.30
Total 477.02 1 122.57 3 070.52 4 694.03 7 421.92 4 576.05 2 497.35 973.42 603.46 421.52 3 574.83 117.38 29 550.07
Source: Canada's National Forest Inventory, revised 2006 baseline (Version 3, December 2013) (http://nfi.nfis.org)
Note: The Arctic ecozones (Arctic Cordillera, Northern Arctic, Southern Arctic), and the Taiga Plains and Hudson Plains ecozones located in Nunavut, are not inventoried. The total area amounts to 262,189.89 thousand ha.
1 Missing or unknown age class.