Table 14.1. Area (1000 ha) of forest land by species group, age class and terrestrial ecozone in Canada.
Terrestrial ecozone Species group Age (years) Total
1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 101-120 121-140 141-160 161-180 181-200 201+ Other1
Taiga Plains Spruce 213.47 697.29 1 572.54 2 460.59 5 580.41 14 570.56 882.60 537.80 264.65 39.13 49.02 0.00 26 868.06
Poplar 261.89 282.48 282.42 1 056.18 1 561.53 297.79 286.84 122.65 18.68 3.08 0.00 0.00 4 173.54
Pine 206.62 363.34 359.84 397.76 211.36 99.08 102.76 61.52 6.12 0.08 2.37 0.00 1 810.85
Larch 70.86 150.13 233.42 341.30 224.94 130.09 78.35 33.29 5.80 3.06 15.69 0.00 1 286.93
Birch 263.47 185.36 176.50 151.86 80.64 39.07 32.41 8.75 2.22 0.00 5.24 0.00 945.51
Fir 0.00 12.32 28.09 14.76 9.86 21.40 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 86.72
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 78.89 78.89
Subtotal 1 016.32 1 690.91 2 652.81 4 422.45 7 668.74 15 157.99 1 383.25 764.01 297.48 45.35 72.31 78.89 35 250.50
Taiga Shield Spruce 119.59 860.97 2 211.12 2 305.14 6 200.88 7 150.98 15 319.71 4 789.24 28.05 39.65 563.96 0.00 39 589.29
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4 440.81 4 440.81
Pine 432.10 646.75 434.15 332.90 150.73 17.92 14.63 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2 029.46
Poplar 55.03 69.29 46.86 43.08 41.04 824.78 1.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 081.34
Larch 34.96 148.67 222.82 161.85 116.83 66.54 50.32 32.03 2.33 2.50 3.18 0.00 842.02
Birch 178.13 86.99 36.63 13.36 24.50 16.11 0.39 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 356.11
Fir 0.28 4.66 19.10 27.70 6.58 20.45 61.91 10.86 1.74 0.00 0.00 0.00 153.29
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.00 0.27 4.27 35.92 37.43 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 78.02
Unspecified conifers 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17
Maple 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03
Subtotal 820.09 1 817.33 2 971.15 2 888.30 6 576.48 8 134.21 15 448.34 4 832.42 32.12 42.16 567.13 4 440.81 48 570.54
Boreal Shield Spruce 1 635.07 5 871.32 11 683.07 12 733.17 14 576.93 7 570.95 9 889.36 1 612.33 283.54 32.73 14.98 259.25 66 162.69
Pine 3 103.33 4 604.71 3 009.14 2 667.90 1 819.73 464.33 312.81 75.82 6.48 0.38 0.00 39.31 16 103.96
Poplar 1 907.89 2 107.34 2 414.55 3 248.34 2 927.78 504.31 80.34 11.70 0.00 6.91 1.95 9.92 13 221.02
Birch 685.04 1 687.22 1 995.20 1 870.95 1 866.01 462.18 90.57 18.00 0.61 2.81 0.00 21.32 8 699.92
Fir 290.67 1 634.44 1 846.84 991.52 2 046.81 389.69 374.28 72.12 31.74 1.41 3.30 12.39 7 695.22
Unclassified 56.34 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6 498.81 6 555.23
Maple 40.65 392.62 1 402.92 1 461.73 1 458.16 303.62 47.80 12.97 18.52 0.00 0.00 0.68 5 139.68
Unspecified conifers 1 831.87 1 300.69 190.08 25.47 4.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17.51 3 369.86
Larch 243.28 484.81 582.70 511.15 343.04 261.96 213.31 69.30 5.78 2.72 0.00 14.45 2 732.50
Unspecified hardwoods 1 021.53 260.50 56.03 2.13 33.92 0.60 0.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.23 1 375.58
Cedar & other conifers 2.73 18.19 100.68 125.33 199.97 117.30 60.02 21.58 15.50 0.00 0.00 0.03 661.32
Other hardwoods 18.29 84.19 184.38 173.38 119.59 45.73 10.24 5.64 2.06 0.00 0.00 4.30 647.80
Hemlock 0.00 1.14 13.42 29.99 65.89 7.83 22.81 4.26 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.00 145.71
Subtotal 10 836.69 18 447.27 23 479.01 23 841.07 25 462.05 10 128.51 11 102.19 1 903.72 364.58 46.96 20.23 6 878.19 132 510.47
Atlantic Maritime Spruce 477.69 804.02 948.23 1 033.40 726.03 234.10 51.13 5.11 0.56 0.60 0.00 0.06 4 280.92
Fir 396.86 921.68 903.52 963.50 483.90 187.71 14.02 12.69 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3 883.88
Maple 217.72 273.02 727.65 1 063.00 583.04 183.25 8.13 7.34 1.24 0.00 0.21 0.17 3 064.76
Birch 182.07 319.86 293.78 308.96 165.62 76.45 0.54 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 347.27
Poplar 176.67 214.76 262.72 264.13 125.51 27.35 0.00 0.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 071.79
Unspecified conifers 603.48 298.60 67.07 35.35 3.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.26 1 010.42
Unclassified 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 679.84 679.85
Pine 50.71 91.43 46.11 75.44 48.35 36.40 2.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 350.51
Unspecified hardwoods 205.92 78.34 32.37 20.24 2.65 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.07 339.94
Cedar & other conifers 8.29 22.89 27.80 34.86 70.93 82.23 26.10 2.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 275.76
Larch 7.24 33.46 59.34 37.59 15.36 2.54 0.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 155.93
Other hardwoods 23.73 108.14 6.88 10.92 3.98 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 153.68
Hemlock 0.15 1.94 5.24 10.22 8.86 3.39 0.19 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.09
Subtotal 2 350.52 3 168.15 3 380.72 3 857.60 2 237.89 833.82 102.57 28.54 1.79 0.60 0.21 682.41 16 644.81
Mixedwood Plains Maple 16.09 85.52 488.09 390.68 217.38 49.99 4.59 3.95 1.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 257.50
Other hardwoods 11.57 62.37 170.49 187.32 79.84 4.20 3.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 518.96
Cedar & other conifers 6.41 96.25 143.31 98.02 33.96 2.97 4.55 1.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 387.32
Poplar 13.58 89.02 146.28 55.08 20.60 5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 329.57
Pine 25.92 66.55 62.81 27.34 4.09 1.87 1.55 0.36 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 190.48
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 172.95 172.95
Birch 9.35 59.59 28.59 8.49 5.86 1.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 112.94
Fir 1.96 16.20 71.12 18.83 0.54 3.06 1.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 112.82
Unspecified hardwoods 31.35 23.10 39.90 2.63 11.46 1.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 109.75
Spruce 16.53 25.89 28.40 15.63 4.01 0.00 0.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 91.05
Larch 2.58 9.39 29.17 2.74 4.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 47.95
Unspecified conifers 21.23 14.14 3.49 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 39.07
Hemlock 0.00 0.00 4.94 9.55 14.70 2.98 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 32.17
Subtotal 156.55 548.02 1 216.57 816.52 396.53 72.45 15.56 6.16 1.20 0.00 0.00 172.95 3 402.53
Boreal Plains Spruce 424.24 1 088.99 2 314.41 4 796.54 3 520.41 2 775.94 1 535.46 707.26 281.29 74.61 63.19 3.71 17 586.05
Poplar 1 499.78 1 776.11 2 076.79 4 390.58 2 849.31 1 476.85 518.80 103.17 14.59 0.93 0.00 12.80 14 719.69
Pine 930.05 1 242.02 696.72 1 274.21 804.89 598.62 341.43 93.51 55.16 0.38 0.53 2.80 6 040.32
Larch 52.99 198.81 645.23 858.40 768.64 549.53 189.22 59.96 38.36 8.47 2.31 0.00 3 371.94
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 431.98 1 431.98
Birch 62.42 201.78 225.71 186.19 64.61 19.79 1.90 0.39 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 762.85
Fir 0.02 23.62 23.61 16.11 15.48 5.76 8.05 1.94 4.80 3.02 6.74 0.00 109.16
Maple 1.43 5.26 7.04 4.31 0.19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 18.22
Other hardwoods 0.10 2.53 4.70 3.84 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.32
Cedar & other conifers 0.10 0.05 0.55 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.69
Unspecified hardwoods 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04
Subtotal 2 971.13 4 539.19 5 994.75 11 530.18 8 023.54 5 426.54 2 594.86 966.21 394.31 87.41 72.77 1 451.36 44 052.25
Prairies Poplar 300.57 655.13 156.17 37.26 15.16 3.16 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 167.55
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 272.81 272.81
Pine 0.27 3.55 26.53 0.15 0.01 5.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 36.41
Spruce 1.95 8.49 6.56 2.62 3.85 3.92 0.98 2.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 30.71
Birch 4.04 2.39 0.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.17
Maple 2.50 2.13 1.95 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.59
Larch 0.00 0.83 0.11 0.02 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.02
Douglas-fir 0.00 0.00 0.37 0.60 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.98
Other hardwoods 0.07 0.12 0.39 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.58
Fir 0.03 0.13 0.00 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.44
Subtotal 309.44 672.79 192.82 40.95 19.08 12.98 0.98 2.42 0.00 0.00 0.00 272.81 1 524.26
Taiga Cordillera Spruce 38.01 78.32 658.09 596.05 295.32 1 068.30 2 670.39 61.00 34.18 0.00 0.00 38.43 5 538.09
Fir 0.00 6.07 8.98 124.70 144.96 98.54 68.69 48.03 9.71 0.00 0.00 3.36 513.04
Birch 3.35 22.33 9.87 28.32 86.36 1.79 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.38 155.41
Pine 0.00 8.84 17.80 25.98 25.73 9.23 7.24 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 94.83
Poplar 0.95 11.35 17.60 8.77 0.86 4.19 0.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 44.39
Larch 0.08 1.29 4.11 9.17 4.88 0.85 2.96 11.33 2.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 36.97
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 17.21 17.21
Subtotal 42.40 128.21 716.45 792.98 558.12 1 182.89 2 749.94 120.36 46.19 0.00 0.00 62.39 6 399.93
Boreal Cordillera Spruce 48.75 171.03 748.50 1 126.09 1 521.30 2 331.07 1 421.65 909.88 602.85 99.25 904.87 201.28 10 086.50
Pine 54.22 177.22 727.49 476.43 424.64 640.04 410.46 240.32 124.58 28.08 168.95 14.44 3 486.87
Fir 1.17 17.12 64.08 141.05 277.38 384.62 347.37 256.71 211.81 104.37 509.02 12.61 2 327.30
Poplar 59.44 152.46 405.18 440.78 229.98 225.35 98.91 60.72 8.16 3.37 25.08 9.20 1 718.63
Birch 60.19 57.46 356.56 127.93 44.48 59.88 7.16 7.44 0.56 0.00 0.00 3.94 725.58
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 211.06 211.06
Larch 1.01 2.94 4.00 10.47 7.40 4.05 3.47 0.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 33.87
Subtotal 224.77 578.22 2 305.80 2 322.75 2 505.18 3 645.01 2 289.03 1 475.59 947.96 235.06 1 607.91 452.53 18 589.82
Pacific Maritime Hemlock 217.23 376.80 332.05 213.48 198.02 116.94 128.13 69.61 122.94 61.26 3 226.75 0.00 5 063.22
Cedar & other conifers 64.82 54.89 45.08 30.46 17.00 24.17 12.19 45.92 61.15 127.07 1 940.19 0.00 2 422.95
Fir 52.26 130.81 38.63 30.38 19.96 34.33 42.48 43.25 40.37 42.22 1 065.40 0.00 1 540.09
Douglas-fir 112.11 99.15 242.19 235.17 106.06 109.19 81.84 52.02 30.79 34.57 210.13 0.00 1 313.21
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 296.45 296.45
Other hardwoods 7.67 20.87 100.69 47.52 31.84 14.90 2.22 0.03 0.21 2.80 13.55 0.00 242.28
Pine 0.87 14.29 0.82 9.07 18.64 48.65 23.84 32.23 3.88 25.55 63.15 0.00 241.00
Spruce 0.00 44.84 54.66 1.78 11.14 4.78 5.25 4.63 8.82 8.70 93.25 0.00 237.84
Poplar 0.00 1.28 7.62 12.43 36.94 63.46 11.23 18.26 1.05 7.07 8.39 0.00 167.72
Maple 1.09 2.54 8.65 14.73 29.80 0.06 0.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.30 0.00 58.69
Birch 3.18 9.11 1.59 7.83 11.72 8.95 6.24 2.35 0.00 0.00 1.32 0.00 52.30
Unspecified hardwoods 0.24 0.00 0.00 0.19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43
Subtotal 459.46 754.58 831.99 603.05 481.13 425.43 313.94 268.30 269.19 309.23 6 623.43 296.45 11 636.18
Montane Cordillera Pine 1 094.53 1 016.70 347.86 769.98 1 647.18 1 435.35 1 226.97 801.83 354.70 212.06 484.50 0.00 9 391.64
Spruce 419.30 535.80 262.87 307.86 477.30 756.54 955.17 973.81 518.09 393.71 1 780.56 0.00 7 381.00
Fir 63.65 128.55 193.64 199.28 324.29 515.19 624.18 719.37 728.80 628.47 2 384.22 0.00 6 509.64
Douglas-fir 60.11 67.21 108.48 166.43 494.52 636.90 640.57 538.17 196.40 150.02 537.18 0.00 3 595.98
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1 634.46 1 634.46
Poplar 54.67 108.99 142.17 205.16 419.68 207.31 163.05 90.43 11.35 6.59 12.03 0.00 1 421.43
Hemlock 8.31 10.48 34.99 26.39 52.10 57.59 56.23 48.82 43.91 51.75 462.06 0.00 852.63
Larch 20.81 4.09 6.04 29.69 77.69 62.30 55.45 19.90 20.18 11.00 56.30 0.00 363.48
Cedar & other conifers 5.18 23.23 23.87 13.45 12.37 14.34 11.66 10.43 4.25 8.32 223.97 0.00 351.08
Birch 25.96 23.02 68.58 33.39 38.58 37.18 18.82 7.76 0.80 0.72 0.46 0.00 255.27
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.79 0.00 0.53 0.00 0.00 4.46
Subtotal 1 752.53 1 918.07 1 188.63 1 751.63 3 543.73 3 722.69 3 752.11 3 214.31 1 878.47 1 463.16 5 941.27 1 634.46 31 761.07
Hudson Plains Spruce 5.43 814.49 1 451.90 913.99 2 959.97 1 771.26 1 733.16 207.44 3.62 0.05 0.00 0.00 9 861.31
Larch 23.00 111.54 155.02 72.63 126.96 71.09 15.30 128.51 2.81 0.19 0.00 0.00 707.07
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 582.93 582.93
Pine 28.13 116.36 26.38 22.93 17.65 13.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 225.37
Poplar 13.32 11.35 16.81 76.99 12.67 5.14 1.44 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 137.71
Birch 13.56 11.27 5.85 5.98 0.40 1.67 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 38.74
Fir 0.22 11.44 16.61 3.40 1.03 1.41 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.11
Cedar & other conifers 0.00 0.00 1.10 0.41 0.68 0.51 0.03 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.19
Unspecified conifers 0.00 0.00 1.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.04
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.22
Subtotal 83.67 1 076.63 1 674.72 1 096.33 3 119.36 1 865.04 1 749.94 336.40 6.43 0.25 0.00 582.93 11 591.69
Canada Spruce 3 400.04 11 001.44 21 940.32 26 292.85 35 877.56 38 238.40 34 465.45 9 810.83 2 025.66 688.42 3 469.81 502.73 187 713.52
Pine 5 926.74 8 351.75 5 755.65 6 080.10 5 173.01 3 371.32 2 443.76 1 305.89 550.90 266.54 719.49 56.56 40 001.71
Poplar 4 343.79 5 479.55 5 975.18 9 838.78 8 241.06 3 644.70 1 162.52 407.65 53.83 27.95 47.45 31.92 39 254.38
Fir 807.11 2 907.05 3 214.24 2 531.52 3 330.79 1 662.15 1 542.39 1 164.97 1 028.96 779.48 3 968.68 28.37 22 965.71
Unclassified 56.34 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 16 318.20 16 374.63
Birch 1 490.76 2 666.39 3 199.60 2 743.25 2 388.78 724.14 158.03 44.69 4.20 3.53 7.02 28.70 13 459.08
Larch 456.82 1 145.96 1 941.96 2 035.03 1 689.88 1 148.95 608.78 354.85 77.57 27.95 77.47 14.45 9 579.66
Maple 279.49 761.08 2 636.32 2 934.47 2 288.58 536.92 61.03 24.26 20.96 0.00 1.51 0.86 9 545.47
Hemlock 225.69 390.37 390.64 289.63 339.57 188.73 207.37 122.79 167.21 113.01 3 688.82 0.00 6 123.82
Douglas-fir 172.21 166.36 351.04 402.20 600.59 746.10 722.40 590.19 227.18 184.59 747.31 0.00 4 910.17
Unspecified conifers 2 456.57 1 613.43 261.85 61.03 7.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 19.77 4 420.56
Cedar & other conifers 87.53 215.51 342.39 302.54 334.92 241.51 114.56 82.89 80.89 135.39 2 164.16 0.03 4 102.31
Unspecified hardwoods 1 259.05 361.97 128.30 25.18 48.02 2.27 0.64 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.30 1 825.74
Other hardwoods 61.41 278.40 467.93 427.25 271.18 102.38 15.75 9.46 2.36 3.33 13.55 4.30 1 657.31
Total 21 023.55 35 339.35 46 605.41 53 963.82 60 591.82 50 607.58 41 502.69 13 918.46 4 239.73 2 230.18 14 905.27 17 006.18 361 934.06
Source: Canada's National Forest Inventory, combined remeasured (2007-2017) and projected (2006-2017 with NFI projection system) data (Version 1, July 2021) (http://nfi.nfis.org)
Note: The Arctic ecozones (Arctic Cordillera, Northern Arctic, Southern Arctic), and the Taiga Plains and Hudson Plains ecozones located in Nunavut, are not inventoried. These non-inventoried areas total 262,189.89 thousand ha.
1 Missing or unknown age class.