Table 18.1. Total above-ground biomass (million tonnes) on forest land by species group, age class and terrestrial ecozone in Canada.
Terrestrial ecozone Species group Age (years) Total
1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 101-120 121-140 141-160 161-180 181-200 201+ Other1
Taiga Plains Spruce 2.22 12.37 39.47 83.50 433.26 1 340.56 80.74 58.93 31.84 6.65 4.20 0.00 2 093.74
Poplar 2.95 13.81 27.49 133.72 184.84 50.02 58.61 27.16 5.21 0.72 0.00 0.00 504.53
Pine 1.49 9.02 18.20 36.08 16.49 11.78 16.88 10.21 1.16 0.02 0.55 0.00 121.87
Birch 2.71 7.17 15.66 17.91 10.97 6.85 5.09 1.47 0.32 0.00 0.64 0.00 68.78
Larch 0.56 1.86 4.18 6.29 7.05 5.49 3.70 1.75 0.38 0.21 0.56 0.00 32.03
Fir 0.00 0.04 0.37 0.22 0.46 2.06 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.15
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20 0.20
Subtotal 9.93 44.27 105.36 277.71 653.09 1 416.75 165.02 99.51 38.91 7.60 5.95 0.20 2 824.30
Taiga Shield Spruce 2.38 28.39 94.99 106.22 302.88 351.98 807.42 430.61 1.23 2.35 35.81 0.00 2 164.24
Pine 6.81 16.29 13.51 11.92 6.08 0.94 0.55 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 56.12
Poplar 0.90 3.15 3.82 3.45 1.85 32.16 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 45.44
Larch 0.61 1.81 4.33 4.51 5.19 2.51 2.60 1.65 0.14 0.13 0.20 0.00 23.69
Fir 0.01 0.19 1.50 2.37 0.56 2.25 5.99 0.99 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 14.09
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.98 11.98
Birch 2.05 1.72 1.13 0.58 1.12 0.81 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.45
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.06 0.59 1.04 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.70
Unspecified conifers 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Maple 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01
Subtotal 12.75 51.55 119.30 129.11 318.27 391.68 816.74 433.26 1.59 2.48 36.01 11.98 2 324.73
Boreal Shield Spruce 26.73 185.57 597.17 927.11 1 160.81 628.26 796.58 144.09 25.63 3.52 1.57 1.99 4 499.02
Poplar 34.86 109.43 209.73 312.92 280.47 48.38 9.32 1.31 0.00 1.18 0.39 0.08 1 008.06
Pine 44.01 166.90 193.80 224.50 176.66 49.61 37.27 8.78 1.07 0.07 0.00 0.30 902.96
Birch 12.05 77.98 164.81 192.32 212.63 51.94 10.74 2.50 0.03 0.51 0.00 0.16 725.68
Fir 12.35 108.70 164.93 102.38 204.66 41.90 39.11 9.78 3.32 0.21 0.78 0.10 688.21
Maple 1.64 20.97 143.94 183.69 214.83 44.89 8.72 2.47 2.91 0.00 0.00 0.01 624.07
Unspecified conifers 52.60 63.11 14.22 1.38 0.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13 131.94
Larch 5.22 9.69 18.57 20.96 14.37 11.96 10.49 2.78 0.39 0.13 0.00 0.11 94.68
Unspecified hardwoods 36.49 16.23 6.15 0.23 5.02 0.07 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 64.30
Other hardwoods 0.30 2.58 14.09 19.00 15.45 5.37 1.02 0.60 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.03 58.59
Cedar & other conifers 0.06 0.89 6.98 9.35 19.27 10.84 5.29 1.91 1.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 55.65
Unclassified 1.58 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 47.98 49.56
Hemlock 0.00 0.04 1.30 3.36 8.87 1.14 3.53 0.46 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 18.79
Subtotal 227.89 762.10 1 535.69 1 997.18 2 313.52 894.37 922.18 174.68 34.63 5.62 2.74 50.89 8 921.49
Atlantic Maritime Maple 8.12 20.44 85.12 132.63 88.38 29.74 1.29 1.41 0.19 0.00 0.04 < 0.01 367.35
Spruce 8.80 42.38 85.50 114.20 79.01 27.05 5.82 0.46 0.05 0.11 0.00 0.00 363.39
Fir 9.94 57.37 91.17 113.67 60.25 20.94 2.01 1.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 356.81
Birch 4.36 22.54 31.08 37.35 20.91 10.18 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 126.50
Poplar 3.38 14.46 30.00 33.44 17.14 3.69 0.00 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 102.19
Unspecified conifers 17.15 17.34 5.18 3.33 0.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 43.34
Pine 0.96 6.94 5.33 9.21 6.65 4.83 0.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.23
Cedar & other conifers 1.22 2.45 2.51 4.14 8.27 9.75 3.56 0.34 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 32.26
Unspecified hardwoods 5.42 4.24 2.88 2.09 0.33 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 15.01
Larch 0.46 2.08 4.52 3.42 1.48 0.20 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.20
Other hardwoods 0.83 6.56 0.51 1.09 0.51 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.50
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 5.08 5.08
Hemlock < 0.01 0.36 0.91 1.49 0.93 0.79 0.04 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.53
Subtotal 60.64 197.16 344.72 456.05 284.19 107.22 13.15 3.77 0.23 0.11 0.04 5.09 1 472.39
Mixedwood Plains Maple 0.77 4.00 50.90 46.87 33.30 8.21 0.84 0.77 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 145.87
Other hardwoods 0.18 1.41 10.93 19.09 10.56 0.54 0.52 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 43.23
Poplar 0.30 5.53 17.34 7.93 2.96 0.61 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.67
Cedar & other conifers 0.12 3.58 10.64 8.77 3.46 0.30 0.50 0.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 27.80
Pine 0.66 4.89 8.09 4.08 0.73 0.38 0.34 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 19.28
Fir 0.08 1.05 8.45 2.25 0.06 0.31 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.41
Unspecified hardwoods 1.16 1.51 5.10 0.36 1.36 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.66
Birch 0.48 3.03 2.46 0.75 0.84 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.67
Spruce 0.32 1.32 2.41 1.65 0.43 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.16
Hemlock 0.00 0.00 0.53 1.31 1.91 0.46 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.21
Larch 0.09 0.45 2.88 0.23 0.27 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.94
Unspecified conifers 1.02 1.05 0.31 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.40
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.30 1.30
Subtotal 5.18 27.83 120.06 93.31 55.88 11.09 2.43 1.30 0.21 0.00 0.00 1.30 318.60
Boreal Plains Poplar 52.25 118.74 198.46 577.39 412.46 233.72 91.81 19.58 2.40 0.14 0.00 0.10 1 707.05
Spruce 11.18 44.08 147.31 415.62 353.86 298.63 192.17 103.74 38.01 9.40 9.28 0.03 1 623.32
Pine 17.91 53.97 47.40 133.88 86.69 93.59 60.77 18.06 10.74 0.03 0.07 0.02 523.14
Larch 1.22 4.57 19.78 34.78 29.07 26.55 13.56 3.93 1.47 0.14 0.21 0.00 135.29
Birch 1.82 10.65 22.74 21.59 6.82 2.69 0.16 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 66.50
Fir 0.00 1.26 1.68 1.70 1.77 0.46 1.17 0.19 0.71 0.44 0.86 0.00 10.24
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.83 9.83
Maple 0.03 0.49 1.28 0.58 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.41
Other hardwoods < 0.01 0.12 0.27 0.37 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.78
Cedar & other conifers < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Unspecified hardwoods 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01
Subtotal 84.42 233.89 438.93 1 185.91 890.70 655.64 359.64 145.54 53.34 10.16 10.42 9.98 4 078.56
Prairies Poplar 10.32 36.34 12.77 3.56 1.94 0.49 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 65.43
Spruce 0.03 0.19 0.39 0.23 0.56 0.51 0.17 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.34
Pine 0.01 0.08 0.88 0.02 0.00 1.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.10
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.05 2.05
Birch 0.09 0.07 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.21
Maple 0.05 0.06 0.10 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.20
Douglas-fir 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.04 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05
Larch 0.00 0.01 < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02
Other hardwoods < 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Fir 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Subtotal 10.50 36.74 14.20 3.87 2.50 2.12 0.17 0.29 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.05 72.44
Taiga Cordillera Spruce 0.15 1.42 14.77 16.86 11.12 103.95 293.92 7.18 4.43 0.00 0.00 0.10 453.93
Fir 0.00 0.03 0.03 2.21 4.76 5.15 4.30 4.79 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.01 21.72
Birch 0.02 0.17 0.02 0.95 5.26 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 6.52
Pine 0.00 0.04 0.18 0.69 1.75 0.81 0.70 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.18
Larch 0.00 0.01 0.03 0.31 0.38 0.05 0.08 0.35 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.27
Poplar 0.07 0.21 0.18 0.36 0.01 0.30 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.16
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 0.24 1.89 15.21 21.38 23.27 110.35 299.04 12.32 4.95 0.00 0.00 0.12 488.78
Boreal Cordillera Spruce 1.23 3.67 23.13 39.27 86.95 205.57 150.81 112.61 86.26 13.01 96.29 1.26 820.07
Pine 0.41 3.77 30.45 34.39 33.81 75.00 61.48 37.50 19.11 6.42 24.74 0.09 327.18
Fir 0.01 0.07 0.90 3.94 9.73 22.47 25.09 19.16 16.76 6.17 24.69 0.07 129.06
Poplar 0.41 2.27 13.01 26.73 19.66 26.12 16.22 8.70 1.04 1.06 3.20 0.06 118.48
Birch 0.12 0.46 5.40 1.25 1.96 3.40 0.49 0.45 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.03 13.60
Larch < 0.01 0.01 0.10 0.26 0.35 0.29 0.28 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.35
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16 0.16
Subtotal 2.18 10.26 72.99 105.83 152.47 332.84 254.37 178.48 123.23 26.67 148.92 1.67 1 409.90
Pacific Maritime Hemlock 6.33 44.96 80.82 70.25 63.81 27.11 32.01 18.06 27.85 12.09 1 053.14 0.00 1 436.43
Cedar & other conifers 1.08 5.04 10.99 7.88 6.02 6.90 2.39 9.10 11.05 18.11 514.43 0.00 593.01
Douglas-fir 2.15 14.84 67.53 92.50 45.72 43.64 36.66 13.69 10.44 12.23 84.67 0.00 424.08
Fir 0.89 8.75 7.68 4.19 1.69 5.33 8.13 8.45 7.81 7.37 292.14 0.00 352.42
Spruce 0.00 2.79 18.13 0.40 5.79 1.32 1.30 1.18 3.01 2.84 42.22 0.00 78.98
Other hardwoods 0.29 3.91 23.47 13.51 9.17 5.39 0.96 0.01 0.01 1.08 4.03 0.00 61.85
Poplar 0.00 0.15 1.18 3.80 8.00 16.82 4.23 4.05 0.29 3.57 2.59 0.00 44.68
Pine 0.01 1.65 0.10 1.65 3.92 9.82 5.39 5.11 0.23 1.82 5.30 0.00 35.00
Maple 0.01 0.19 1.94 2.74 5.37 0.01 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.44 0.00 10.82
Birch 0.02 0.75 0.28 2.36 2.40 2.00 1.21 0.51 0.00 0.00 0.41 0.00 9.96
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.84 1.84
Unspecified hardwoods < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02
Subtotal 10.79 83.03 212.13 199.29 151.90 118.36 92.41 60.15 60.70 59.11 1 999.38 1.84 3 049.08
Montane Cordillera Spruce 2.16 11.94 29.63 40.05 72.70 121.26 166.54 183.30 99.90 76.91 369.73 0.00 1 174.14
Pine 6.57 54.27 34.88 88.23 237.62 218.69 209.82 146.52 63.15 34.81 68.35 0.00 1 162.91
Fir 0.20 2.79 15.98 17.31 35.95 60.70 77.95 103.31 106.41 91.46 387.63 0.00 899.68
Douglas-fir 0.37 4.79 11.92 20.76 85.70 125.09 130.59 112.90 33.47 25.66 101.82 0.00 653.08
Hemlock 0.13 0.55 5.75 6.78 13.76 14.88 14.49 10.75 9.85 11.40 156.57 0.00 244.90
Poplar 0.19 9.75 19.00 28.35 75.99 47.33 35.29 20.54 1.98 1.67 3.21 0.00 243.31
Cedar & other conifers 0.02 1.93 4.45 2.21 3.39 3.55 3.29 3.13 1.27 2.45 88.18 0.00 113.86
Larch 0.16 0.28 1.11 4.73 15.76 14.04 12.47 4.33 3.35 1.74 9.99 0.00 67.95
Birch 0.41 2.07 11.88 6.78 8.12 8.33 4.32 1.69 0.14 0.21 0.09 0.00 44.05
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.09 10.09
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.32 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.39
Subtotal 10.21 88.37 134.60 215.20 549.00 613.87 654.76 586.80 319.51 246.38 1 185.58 10.09 4 614.36
Hudson Plains Spruce 0.11 14.56 28.05 30.45 53.26 86.16 32.24 11.32 0.33 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 256.48
Larch 0.65 0.97 2.64 2.21 4.24 2.71 0.92 3.81 0.19 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 18.35
Pine 0.51 3.36 1.02 1.92 1.18 0.27 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.25
Poplar 0.14 0.49 1.27 1.79 0.48 0.48 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.67
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.35 2.35
Fir < 0.01 0.44 0.72 0.23 0.06 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.51
Birch 0.18 0.25 0.25 0.57 < 0.01 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.36
Cedar & other conifers 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.02 < 0.01 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.13
Unspecified conifers 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Subtotal 1.59 20.07 34.02 37.18 59.25 89.83 33.18 15.16 0.52 0.01 0.00 2.35 293.16
Canada Spruce 55.30 348.68 1 080.96 1 775.55 2 560.63 3 165.25 2 527.74 1 053.71 290.69 114.80 559.11 3.38 13 535.82
Poplar 105.77 314.32 534.24 1 133.44 1 005.80 460.12 215.65 81.44 10.93 8.34 9.39 0.23 3 879.67
Pine 79.35 321.19 353.83 546.56 571.59 466.84 393.51 226.29 95.47 43.17 99.01 0.41 3 197.21
Fir 23.48 180.69 293.42 250.47 319.95 161.63 163.96 148.12 135.68 105.65 706.09 0.18 2 489.31
Hemlock 6.47 45.91 89.32 83.18 89.27 44.38 50.07 29.29 37.78 23.49 1 209.71 0.00 1 708.86
Maple 10.62 46.15 283.28 366.51 341.92 82.85 10.96 4.64 3.31 0.00 0.48 0.01 1 150.73
Birch 24.31 126.85 255.77 282.42 271.03 86.50 22.14 6.64 0.54 0.73 1.14 0.20 1 078.27
Douglas-fir 2.52 19.63 79.46 113.31 131.43 168.74 167.26 126.59 43.90 37.89 186.49 0.00 1 077.22
Cedar & other conifers 2.50 13.91 35.60 32.37 40.44 31.37 15.03 14.94 13.38 20.56 602.61 0.00 822.72
Larch 8.98 21.75 58.13 77.70 78.18 63.81 44.13 18.66 5.98 2.35 10.96 0.11 390.75
Unspecified conifers 70.77 81.50 19.77 4.73 0.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15 177.73
Other hardwoods 1.61 14.59 49.30 53.11 36.28 12.35 2.52 0.93 0.15 1.15 4.03 0.03 176.06
Unclassified 1.58 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 92.87 94.45
Unspecified hardwoods 43.07 21.98 14.13 2.70 6.71 0.28 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 88.98
Total 436.33 1 557.16 3 147.21 4 722.04 5 454.04 4 744.11 3 613.07 1 711.27 637.82 358.12 3 389.03 97.58 29 867.78
Source: Canada's National Forest Inventory, combined remeasured (2007-2017) and projected (2006-2017 with NFI projection system) data (Version 1, July 2021) (http://nfi.nfis.org)
Note: The Arctic ecozones (Arctic Cordillera, Northern Arctic, Southern Arctic), and the Taiga Plains and Hudson Plains ecozones located in Nunavut, are not inventoried. These non-inventoried areas total 262,189.89 thousand ha.
1 Missing or unknown age class.