Table 18.2. Total above-ground biomass (million tonnes) on forest land by species group, age class and boreal zone in Canada.
Boreal zone Species group Age (years) Total
1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 101-120 121-140 141-160 161-180 181-200 201+ Other1
Non-boreal Spruce 13.12 71.24 182.24 230.09 209.68 141.31 164.85 148.80 84.22 72.89 373.52 0.01 1 691.96
Hemlock 6.09 43.24 84.61 79.08 85.67 43.04 48.41 28.41 36.31 22.99 1 150.02 0.00 1 627.86
Fir 12.52 86.92 173.00 145.34 123.42 73.94 73.54 96.09 95.86 91.51 648.35 0.01 1 620.49
Pine 14.07 87.95 91.32 165.64 309.64 220.67 211.40 133.14 59.08 34.53 71.64 0.12 1 399.20
Maple 10.55 44.41 269.67 344.81 329.70 82.29 10.86 4.62 3.27 0.00 0.45 0.01 1 100.63
Douglas-fir 2.40 18.84 75.67 108.20 130.33 168.49 167.58 127.96 43.93 37.66 183.43 0.00 1 064.49
Poplar 22.54 104.25 158.72 178.81 161.76 76.60 39.53 23.62 2.21 5.03 5.71 0.00 778.76
Cedar & other conifers 2.38 13.41 33.99 29.07 35.00 24.41 11.33 12.69 12.22 19.53 573.68 0.00 767.72
Birch 8.54 56.46 126.42 141.64 171.68 58.78 10.13 3.74 0.14 0.22 0.48 0.01 578.25
Other hardwoods 1.30 13.04 45.07 44.74 31.50 9.22 1.74 0.41 0.01 1.02 3.79 0.00 151.84
Larch 1.11 3.93 10.15 12.65 19.71 15.54 14.54 4.63 3.41 1.77 10.19 0.00 97.64
Unspecified hardwoods 19.54 13.65 13.82 2.68 6.68 0.28 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 56.74
Unspecified conifers 18.34 21.19 8.31 3.34 0.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 51.85
Unclassified 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 23.87 24.03
Subtotal 132.66 578.53 1 272.98 1 486.08 1 615.42 914.56 754.00 584.13 340.67 287.14 3 021.25 24.05 11 011.46
Boreal Spruce 42.31 278.14 899.21 1 550.19 2 362.50 3 174.66 2 459.70 906.62 209.13 43.25 190.89 3.38 12 119.98
Poplar 83.28 210.34 376.74 957.06 857.24 384.56 177.22 58.28 8.78 3.17 3.65 0.23 3 120.56
Pine 65.28 233.97 263.42 382.46 265.48 248.43 185.64 95.75 37.78 9.24 28.74 0.29 1 816.48
Fir 10.97 93.82 120.49 105.52 198.08 88.61 91.34 53.28 41.29 15.39 47.86 0.17 866.83
Birch 15.85 70.47 129.60 140.74 156.90 76.43 12.07 2.91 0.40 0.52 0.64 0.19 606.71
Larch 7.90 17.82 48.13 65.24 58.88 48.63 29.92 14.09 2.63 0.62 0.97 0.11 294.93
Unspecified conifers 52.77 60.69 11.51 1.40 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.14 126.66
Unclassified 1.43 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 69.15 70.58
Maple 0.06 1.59 12.40 19.99 10.57 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 44.79
Unspecified hardwoods 23.62 8.33 0.26 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 32.24
Cedar & other conifers 0.06 0.25 1.05 2.87 5.08 6.59 3.63 1.78 0.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 21.84
Other hardwoods 0.30 1.33 2.82 7.62 4.22 2.79 0.74 0.52 0.14 0.06 0.00 0.03 20.57
Subtotal 303.83 976.75 1 865.63 3 233.08 3 919.13 4 030.87 2 960.27 1 133.22 300.68 72.26 272.75 73.69 19 142.17
Canada Spruce 55.43 349.38 1 081.45 1 780.28 2 572.18 3 315.97 2 624.55 1 055.43 293.34 116.13 564.41 3.39 13 811.94
Poplar 105.82 314.59 535.46 1 135.86 1 019.00 461.15 216.75 81.89 10.99 8.20 9.36 0.23 3 899.32
Pine 79.35 321.92 354.74 548.09 575.13 469.10 397.04 228.89 96.85 43.78 100.38 0.41 3 215.68
Fir 23.50 180.74 293.48 250.86 321.50 162.55 164.88 149.37 137.15 106.90 696.21 0.18 2 487.32
Hemlock 6.09 43.24 84.61 79.08 85.67 43.04 48.41 28.41 36.31 22.99 1 150.02 0.00 1 627.86
Birch 24.39 126.93 256.02 282.37 328.58 135.21 22.20 6.65 0.55 0.74 1.12 0.20 1 184.96
Maple 10.61 45.99 282.07 364.79 340.27 82.47 10.86 4.62 3.27 0.00 0.45 0.01 1 145.41
Douglas-fir 2.40 18.84 75.67 108.20 130.33 168.49 167.58 127.96 43.93 37.66 183.43 0.00 1 064.49
Cedar & other conifers 2.44 13.66 35.04 31.94 40.08 31.00 14.96 14.47 12.75 19.53 573.68 0.00 789.56
Larch 9.01 21.75 58.28 77.89 78.59 64.17 44.46 18.72 6.04 2.39 11.16 0.11 392.57
Unspecified conifers 71.11 81.88 19.82 4.73 0.81 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.15 178.51
Other hardwoods 1.60 14.37 47.89 52.36 35.72 12.01 2.48 0.93 0.15 1.08 3.79 0.03 172.41
Unclassified 1.59 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 93.02 94.61
Unspecified hardwoods 43.16 21.99 14.07 2.69 6.68 0.28 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 88.98
Total 436.49 1 555.29 3 138.61 4 719.16 5 534.55 4 945.43 3 714.27 1 717.35 641.35 359.39 3 294.00 97.73 30 153.63
Source: Canada's National Forest Inventory, combined remeasured (2007-2017) and projected (2006-2017 with NFI projection system) data (Version 1, August 2021) (http://nfi.nfis.org)
Note: The Non-boreal zone in the Arctic ecozones (Arctic Cordillera, Northern Arctic, Southern Arctic) are not inventoried. The total land and water area amounts to approximately 252,202.08 thousand ha.
1 Missing or unknown age class.