Table 16.1. Total tree volume (million m3) by species group, age class and terrestrial ecozone in Canada.
Terrestrial ecozone Species group Age (years) Total
1-20 21-40 41-60 61-80 81-100 101-120 121-140 141-160 161-180 181-200 201+ Other1
Taiga Plains Spruce 4.57 28.28 89.08 178.11 858.64 2 528.48 146.71 114.52 59.92 13.41 8.83 0.00 4 030.54
Poplar 11.68 28.70 44.99 246.72 339.42 96.76 114.71 54.58 11.27 1.54 0.00 0.00 950.37
Pine 6.86 25.07 33.04 63.46 32.86 23.65 31.94 17.93 2.43 0.04 1.22 0.00 238.50
Birch 7.32 12.09 24.07 27.61 16.80 11.52 8.30 2.58 0.53 0.00 1.07 0.00 111.87
Larch 1.29 4.60 9.52 13.25 15.43 11.45 7.65 3.87 0.60 0.38 1.45 0.00 69.50
Fir 0.00 0.34 1.32 0.70 0.99 3.75 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.10
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 31.72 99.08 202.02 529.84 1 264.14 2 675.61 309.32 193.48 74.75 15.37 12.57 0.00 5 407.89
Taiga Shield Spruce 3.43 40.32 136.92 153.02 418.81 502.60 1 136.48 414.50 1.81 3.53 52.58 0.00 2 864.00
Pine 10.01 31.96 26.98 22.98 11.79 1.67 1.41 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 106.83
Poplar 1.09 4.78 6.11 5.69 2.88 48.02 0.19 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 68.77
Larch 0.35 4.36 10.66 9.97 9.01 4.47 4.55 3.20 0.25 0.21 0.32 0.00 47.34
Fir 0.01 0.25 1.58 2.04 0.50 2.29 5.73 1.18 0.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.89
Birch 4.53 3.46 1.78 0.82 1.63 1.17 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.45
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.17 1.92 2.50 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.61
Unspecified conifers 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02
Maple 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 19.43 85.13 184.06 194.68 446.53 562.72 1 148.44 418.91 2.37 3.74 52.90 0.00 3 118.91
Boreal Shield Spruce 41.13 288.52 975.89 1 472.53 1 838.11 988.42 1 204.27 193.68 35.04 5.18 2.32 0.00 7 045.07
Poplar 75.97 194.04 355.35 533.47 472.65 83.92 16.54 2.31 0.00 2.11 0.76 0.00 1 737.12
Pine 107.96 335.28 347.94 396.37 308.54 87.95 64.63 15.72 2.08 0.14 0.00 0.00 1 666.61
Birch 20.84 122.71 251.49 295.83 317.95 77.30 15.99 3.57 0.03 0.95 0.00 0.00 1 106.66
Fir 17.64 158.10 251.89 148.89 308.38 56.81 57.46 12.77 3.90 0.28 1.17 0.00 1 017.29
Maple 2.49 31.66 195.93 246.51 292.59 61.55 12.52 3.46 4.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 850.88
Unspecified conifers 85.55 103.73 22.76 2.37 0.75 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 215.16
Larch 4.20 20.85 41.37 44.49 30.45 24.14 21.39 5.60 0.75 0.18 0.00 0.00 193.44
Unspecified hardwoods 56.59 23.68 8.65 0.33 7.19 0.10 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 96.68
Cedar & other conifers 0.09 1.23 11.06 15.20 31.86 18.13 8.94 3.25 1.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 91.48
Other hardwoods 0.58 4.22 19.96 23.25 20.63 7.48 1.43 0.87 0.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 78.68
Hemlock 0.00 0.07 1.93 4.87 13.02 1.73 5.21 0.66 0.12 0.00 0.00 0.00 27.60
Unclassified 2.53 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.54
Subtotal 415.57 1 284.10 2 484.23 3 184.12 3 642.11 1 407.52 1 408.52 241.89 48.08 8.84 4.25 0.00 14 129.22
Atlantic Maritime Spruce 16.66 70.81 134.47 179.15 119.16 40.54 8.59 0.74 0.08 0.18 0.00 0.00 570.38
Fir 18.33 93.06 140.42 170.78 88.81 33.39 2.84 2.33 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 549.96
Maple 11.91 27.05 110.87 169.45 106.21 36.39 1.59 1.69 0.19 0.00 0.04 0.00 465.38
Birch 7.76 33.16 41.91 48.35 28.65 13.95 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 173.88
Poplar 7.23 22.08 44.19 48.82 25.03 5.79 0.00 0.14 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 153.27
Unspecified conifers 28.16 28.70 8.63 5.42 0.55 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 71.47
Cedar & other conifers 1.80 3.89 4.48 6.81 13.78 16.94 5.92 0.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 54.15
Pine 1.79 10.27 8.13 14.44 10.78 7.87 0.53 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 53.81
Unspecified hardwoods 9.08 6.43 4.02 2.86 0.45 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 22.91
Larch 0.64 3.02 6.93 5.03 2.28 0.34 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 18.28
Other hardwoods 1.18 8.50 0.69 1.36 0.62 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 12.35
Hemlock 0.01 0.51 1.44 2.26 1.42 1.07 0.06 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.79
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 104.55 307.45 506.19 654.73 397.74 156.34 19.68 5.46 0.27 0.18 0.04 0.00 2 152.62
Mixedwood Plains Maple 1.20 6.45 72.42 65.82 46.22 11.67 1.22 1.12 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 206.40
Other hardwoods 0.23 2.79 16.98 27.59 15.59 0.84 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 64.84
Poplar 0.53 8.79 27.85 13.13 4.87 0.97 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 56.14
Cedar & other conifers 0.18 5.20 17.35 14.50 5.86 0.53 0.86 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 45.33
Pine 1.30 8.60 14.33 7.19 1.24 0.61 0.55 0.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 34.01
Fir 0.12 1.65 13.72 3.68 0.11 0.49 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 20.09
Unspecified hardwoods 1.68 2.23 7.36 0.52 1.70 0.22 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.72
Birch 0.74 4.64 3.69 1.11 1.23 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 11.58
Spruce 0.46 1.95 3.82 2.81 0.70 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 9.79
Hemlock 0.00 0.00 0.79 2.01 2.92 0.71 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.42
Larch 0.10 0.73 4.65 0.40 0.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 6.35
Unspecified conifers 1.64 1.72 0.51 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.91
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 8.20 44.76 183.46 138.80 80.87 16.22 3.84 2.15 0.28 0.00 0.00 0.00 478.58
Boreal Plains Poplar 91.12 212.82 362.84 1 022.45 732.05 416.41 166.15 35.37 4.31 0.25 0.00 0.00 3 043.77
Spruce 21.35 77.91 249.40 699.80 582.46 509.80 324.52 184.21 66.26 16.40 17.68 0.00 2 749.77
Pine 33.00 98.06 89.44 260.73 165.95 173.80 120.33 36.55 23.00 0.04 0.12 0.00 1 001.02
Larch 2.32 8.58 37.99 66.94 60.05 51.69 25.28 7.47 3.32 0.45 0.38 0.00 264.47
Birch 2.65 15.57 32.22 33.30 11.65 4.45 0.27 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 100.15
Fir < 0.01 2.64 3.25 3.12 3.30 0.90 2.17 0.35 1.33 0.78 1.60 0.00 19.44
Maple 0.06 0.83 2.04 0.92 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.91
Other hardwoods < 0.01 0.22 0.43 0.56 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.23
Cedar & other conifers < 0.01 0.01 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04
Unspecified hardwoods 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 < 0.01
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 150.51 416.64 777.65 2 087.81 1 555.52 1 157.06 638.71 264.01 98.21 17.91 19.78 0.00 7 183.82
Prairies Poplar 19.67 69.47 24.46 6.64 3.33 0.86 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 124.44
Spruce 0.07 0.53 0.81 0.43 1.03 0.93 0.30 0.54 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.67
Pine 0.01 0.18 1.52 0.04 < 0.01 2.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.80
Birch 0.19 0.14 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43
Maple 0.09 0.11 0.15 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.35
Douglas-fir 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.08 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.12
Larch 0.00 0.04 0.01 < 0.01 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06
Fir 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03
Other hardwoods < 0.01 < 0.01 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 20.04 70.48 27.11 7.22 4.37 3.83 0.30 0.56 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 133.92
Taiga Cordillera Spruce 0.12 1.32 11.76 15.25 15.40 180.87 527.90 12.58 8.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 773.32
Fir 0.00 0.08 0.09 4.16 7.84 9.22 7.75 9.06 0.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 38.84
Birch 0.08 0.49 0.08 2.61 13.35 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 16.77
Pine 0.00 0.20 0.15 1.14 3.13 1.52 1.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 7.39
Larch < 0.01 0.02 0.08 0.55 0.70 0.09 0.17 0.68 0.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.47
Poplar 0.07 0.35 0.41 0.60 0.01 0.52 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.02
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 0.28 2.46 12.56 24.31 40.44 192.38 537.14 22.32 8.92 0.00 0.00 0.00 840.81
Boreal Cordillera Spruce 0.90 3.13 28.09 52.95 139.16 354.04 266.68 196.30 149.17 19.54 150.58 0.00 1 360.53
Pine 0.85 5.51 41.26 57.29 58.65 135.84 109.08 67.08 35.89 13.99 44.21 0.00 569.65
Fir 0.02 0.24 1.88 8.09 18.19 42.62 47.24 38.72 34.65 13.53 49.18 0.00 254.36
Poplar 0.74 3.56 17.79 43.96 32.44 43.91 30.52 15.03 1.81 2.38 5.13 0.00 197.26
Birch 0.00 0.69 10.42 3.14 4.11 7.02 1.17 0.86 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.00 27.51
Larch 0.02 0.04 0.18 0.46 0.49 0.40 0.34 0.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.02
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 2.53 13.16 99.62 165.89 253.04 583.84 455.01 318.08 221.62 49.44 249.10 0.00 2 411.32
Pacific Maritime Hemlock 5.61 65.76 138.72 125.80 115.80 47.85 56.60 32.19 48.24 20.84 1 973.14 0.00 2 630.57
Cedar & other conifers 0.88 7.01 19.56 13.99 11.28 12.46 3.78 16.52 19.42 29.91 942.87 0.00 1 077.70
Fir 0.61 13.19 14.53 7.93 2.76 9.94 15.80 16.21 15.65 14.62 591.81 0.00 703.05
Douglas-fir 1.27 19.06 105.47 152.34 77.65 73.28 62.16 21.31 16.65 19.96 141.49 0.00 690.65
Spruce 0.00 4.32 32.28 0.68 11.10 2.41 2.28 2.08 5.45 5.41 79.44 0.00 145.45
Other hardwoods 0.36 6.43 39.51 23.17 15.46 9.58 1.74 0.02 0.02 2.03 7.07 0.00 105.37
Poplar 0.00 0.25 2.08 6.78 13.75 29.44 7.74 7.23 0.52 6.49 4.78 0.00 79.06
Pine < 0.01 2.78 0.16 2.85 6.93 17.77 9.73 9.61 0.35 2.16 8.21 0.00 60.54
Maple 0.00 0.31 3.16 4.45 8.83 0.02 0.18 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.76 0.00 17.71
Birch 0.11 1.25 0.44 4.25 3.86 3.39 1.95 0.82 0.00 0.00 0.71 0.00 16.79
Unspecified hardwoods < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 8.86 120.36 355.92 342.25 267.43 206.13 161.96 106.00 106.30 101.43 3 750.28 0.00 5 526.91
Montane Cordillera Pine 8.50 72.53 57.06 148.60 424.30 396.12 389.79 274.76 120.66 64.29 124.16 0.00 2 080.79
Spruce 2.35 16.41 46.44 64.35 122.04 206.60 290.94 325.77 179.32 138.66 680.91 0.00 2 073.78
Fir 0.10 2.79 23.97 27.85 58.09 99.71 126.14 172.97 179.18 149.07 665.38 0.00 1 505.24
Douglas-fir 0.50 5.83 16.82 30.07 136.41 206.38 217.87 189.68 53.59 40.34 166.30 0.00 1 063.78
Hemlock 0.12 0.47 8.96 11.89 24.16 26.40 25.54 18.10 17.34 19.47 291.44 0.00 443.89
Poplar 0.27 14.14 31.09 46.12 129.55 84.75 62.55 36.99 3.55 3.10 5.94 0.00 418.05
Cedar & other conifers 0.02 2.57 7.13 3.44 6.12 6.32 6.01 5.78 2.46 4.64 181.15 0.00 225.65
Larch 0.11 0.36 1.83 7.70 27.28 25.03 21.71 7.62 5.46 2.74 16.70 0.00 116.53
Birch 0.33 2.61 18.28 10.93 13.26 13.58 7.05 2.81 0.21 0.40 0.14 0.00 69.61
Other hardwoods 0.00 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.43 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.54
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 12.30 117.71 211.58 350.96 941.21 1 064.90 1 147.59 1 034.90 561.77 422.81 2 132.12 0.00 7 997.86
Hudson Plains Spruce 0.14 22.58 52.32 49.79 95.00 133.49 83.46 18.19 0.51 0.01 0.00 0.00 455.49
Larch 0.20 2.65 5.58 3.99 7.58 4.68 1.55 6.91 0.31 0.01 0.00 0.00 33.46
Pine 0.86 6.75 2.03 3.13 1.88 0.57 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 15.23
Poplar 0.49 0.87 2.09 3.57 0.72 0.82 0.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 8.59
Fir 0.01 0.67 1.16 0.37 0.09 0.11 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.41
Birch 0.36 0.44 0.40 0.91 0.01 0.17 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.28
Cedar & other conifers 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.03 0.05 0.03 < 0.01 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.19
Unspecified conifers 0.00 0.00 0.08 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.08
Other hardwoods 0.00 < 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
Unclassified 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Subtotal 2.05 33.98 63.69 61.78 105.32 139.88 85.05 25.15 0.82 0.02 0.00 0.00 517.73
Canada Spruce 91.18 556.07 1 761.27 2 868.88 4 201.60 5 448.18 3 992.18 1 463.11 505.66 202.30 992.35 0.00 22 082.78
Poplar 208.87 559.85 919.26 1 977.93 1 756.70 812.17 398.48 151.67 21.46 15.88 16.61 0.00 6 838.87
Pine 171.15 597.20 622.04 978.23 1 026.05 849.40 729.25 421.88 184.41 80.65 177.93 0.00 5 838.18
Fir 36.84 273.02 453.80 377.63 489.04 259.24 265.45 253.59 235.67 178.28 1 309.14 0.00 4 131.71
Hemlock 5.74 66.81 151.84 146.84 157.31 77.76 87.40 50.98 65.69 40.31 2 264.58 0.00 3 115.27
Douglas-fir 1.77 24.88 122.32 182.50 214.06 279.66 280.04 210.99 70.24 60.30 307.78 0.00 1 754.55
Birch 44.91 197.24 384.88 428.85 412.48 132.89 34.88 10.69 0.87 1.35 1.92 0.00 1 650.97
Maple 15.75 66.39 384.59 487.16 453.91 109.62 15.51 6.27 4.65 0.00 0.81 0.00 1 544.65
Cedar & other conifers 2.98 19.92 59.66 53.97 68.96 54.40 25.50 26.98 23.62 34.55 1 124.02 0.00 1 494.55
Larch 9.25 45.25 118.81 152.77 153.74 122.30 82.69 35.44 10.86 3.97 18.84 0.00 753.92
Unspecified conifers 115.35 134.15 32.00 7.83 1.30 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 290.63
Other hardwoods 2.35 22.17 77.60 76.10 54.22 20.41 4.02 1.32 0.28 2.13 7.07 0.00 267.67
Unspecified hardwoods 67.35 32.34 20.03 3.73 9.34 0.39 0.15 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 133.32
Unclassified 2.53 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.54
Total 776.04 2 595.29 5 108.09 7 742.41 8 998.72 8 166.42 5 915.56 2 632.91 1 123.40 619.72 6 221.04 0.00 49 899.60
Source: Canada's National Forest Inventory, combined remeasured (2007-2017) and projected (2006-2017 with NFI projection system) data (Version 1, July 2021) (http://nfi.nfis.org)
Note: The Arctic ecozones (Arctic Cordillera, Northern Arctic, Southern Arctic), and the Taiga Plains and Hudson Plains ecozones located in Nunavut, are not inventoried. These non-inventoried areas total 262,189.89 thousand ha.
1 Missing or unknown age class.